We hope you enjoyed answering the Canadian Aviation Moments in June. We encourage readers to send in their responses to the Canadian Aviation Moments questions at: Your responses will be included in the following month's newsletter. Here are the correct answers:

Question: What factors helped to mitigate the effects of combat stress in Bomber Command crews?

Answer: “Crew solidarity, a sense of shared danger, and an exceptionally strong motivation not to do anything to jeopardize the other members of their aircrew team or family helped to mitigate the effects of combat stress. Many aircrew prevailed in the face of formidable obstacles simply because they would rather perish than let their buddies down. Bomber crews, in many ways, became classic examples of small-unit cohesiveness. Loyalty, and the strength they derived from these loyalties, is a major reason why most of them were able to prevail in the face of such daunting adversity.” “We were intensely preoccupied with our own crew and very strongly motivated not to let it down. Apart from our commanders and three or four other crews that were close contemporaries, we knew few other aircrew on the station as more than passing acquaintances”.

Source: No Prouder Place – Page 181

Question: When was the first United States Air Force’s Red Flag exercise held? When did the Canadian Armed Forces first participate in it? When was the first Maple Flag exercise held and how often has it been held since then (biannually or annually)?

Answer: “The famous Maple Flag air combat training exercise grew out of Canada’s 1977 participation in the U.S.A.F. Red Flag exercise, created in 1975 to give combat aircrew the tough practical experience that would help them survive their first few missions in a “shooting war”. The Canadian forces had its first Maple Flag exercise in 1978 and it has continued regularly ever since – biannually until 1987 and then annually thereafter”.

Source: Windsock – May 2008 – page 1.

Question: What did the 439 Squadron, when they were based in Europe, use for target tugs for gunnery practice and how did they equip the plane so that it could tow the target?

Answer: “For gunnery practice, a taxiing Sabre would open its speed-brake doors. Into the wells would be placed a T-shaped handle with 1,000 feet of cable attached: at the end of it was a banner-type target. The door would be closed, locking the handle in place. The Sabre would take off at an alarmingly steep angle (to minimize damage to the target). “I imagine there was more speed than I thought” Jack recalled. “But I never got used to it.” Making repeated firing passes at the target would be four more Sabres, each with two guns loaded with 100 rounds of .50 calibre ammunition, dipped in coloured wax so that the identity of the firing aircraft could be determined. Rounds passing through it at an angle of 15 degrees or less were ruled invalid, as this posed too much danger to the Sabre target tug and the intrepid aeronaut inside. “You’d try to close to 1,000 feet, which was the ideal range, at probably 300-350 miles per hour, with the tow-plane at only 185 mph.” Pilots were expected to put at least 20 per cent of their rounds into the target.”

Source: Windsock – September 1994

The Canadian Aviation Moments were submitted by Dennis Casper from the Roland Groome (Regina) Chapter of the CAHS.

The Canadian Aviation Moments questions for August are:

Question: What was the last name of the three brothers, all with the RCAF, who all died within a 12 month period in 1943-1944? What town in Saskatchewan did they come from? HINT: 1. Their last name is the same as the name of one of the buildings in Regina. 2. One of them had the distinction of being American by birth.

Source: Their Names Live On – Page 118

Question: What were the major differences, in 1995, between the Snowbird Tutor and the school training Tutor?

Source: Snowbirds Flying High (Canada’s Snowbirds Celebrate 25 Years) – Page 30

Question: Which RCAF squadron established a record with attacks on 22 U-boats, including 3 sinkings? What was its title?

Source:» The Squadrons » 1 -100 Series Squadrons»